2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is- ... rials.html

excellent article featuring energy cost per kilogram for extracting / creating various materials.

http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is- ... rials.html

Wood (from standing timber): 3-7MJ (830 to 1,950 watt-hours).
Steel (from recycled steel): 6-15MJ (1,665 to 4,170 watt-hours).
Aluminum (from 100 % recycled aluminum): 11.35-17MJ (3,150 to 4,750 watt-hours)
Iron (from iron ore): 20-25MJ (5,550 to 6,950 watt-hours)
Glass (from sand, etcetera): 18-35MJ (5,000 to 9,700 watt-hours)
Steel (from iron): 20-50MJ (5,550 to 13,900 watt-hours)
Paper (from standing timber): 25-50MJ (6,950 to 13,900 watt-hours)
Plastics (from crude oil): 62-108MJ (17,200 to 31,950 watt-hours)
Copper (from sulfide ore): 60-125MJ (16,600 to 34,700 watt-hours)
Aluminum (from a typical mix of 80% virgin and 20% recycled aluminum): 219 MJ (60,800 watt-hours)
Silicon (from silica): 230-235MJ (63,900 to 65,300 watt-hours)
Nickel (from ore concentrate): 230-270MJ (63,900 to 75,000 watt-hours)
Aluminum (from bauxite): 227-342MJ (63,000 to 95,000 watt-hours)
Titanium (from ore concentrate): 900-940MJ (250,000 to 261,000 watt-hours)
Electronic grade silicon (CVD process): 7,590-7,755MJ (2,108,700 to 2,154,900 watt-hours).
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Re: 2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 7X13000155

A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study)
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Re: 2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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Attachment is a research paper that contains heaps of energy input to output ratio calculations. Most of them are actually positive, tomatoes and apples were badly in the negative.

http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/2/1/1/pdf
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energies-02-00001.pdf
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Re: 2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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Another good file with agricultural energy input output calcs

http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ej ... ad/681/675
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Re: 2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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https://publications.csiro.au/rpr/downl ... 3&dsid=DS3

Energy Use in Metal Production
John Rankin
CSIRO, Process Science and Engineering, Australia
Keywords: metals, embodied energy, primary metals, recycling, greenhouse
Energy is consumed at all stages in the production of primary metals – mining, beneficiation
and chemical extraction – directly in the processes and indirectly through the production of
inputs (such as electricity and reagents) used in the processes. The sum of the direct and
indirect energies of the individual stages along the value-adding chain is the embodied energy
of the metal. The embodied energy of the common metals varies widely, from typically
around 20 MJ per kilogram for lead and steel to over 200 MJ per kilogram for aluminium
(Figure 1.) The chemical transformation stages (leaching, smelting, electrowinning, etc)
contribute the largest component and mining the least.
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Excellent, excellent article summarising the whole issue really.

http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article14756.html
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Re: 2018 extractability difficulty for resources info

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https://www.wrforum.org/ a useful general one that I haven't heard of before
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